The summary report into the Lozells disturbances in Birmingham in October 2005 that left two men dead was published yesterday. As Joanna Geary reports, it carries a health warning.
"The report should be read with caution. It is not, and cannot be, comprehensive. There are no easy or tidy answers to a problem which, at an underlying level, has existed in and around Lozells for generations."
As one of the introductory paragraphs in the Lozells Disturbances Summary Report, it sounds like a self-defeating message.
"Our central contention, that the strengthening of relationships of all sorts is the only real and long term solution, is not greatly advanced by the writing or reading of a report."
Yet at the same time, this lengthy caveat reflects the complexity of the "Disturbances" - the document does not refer to them as riots - and explains why any attempt to analyse them was likely to spark anger and dispute among those in the Lozells community.
Two men were killed in the violence, IT worker Isaiah Young Sam - three men were later jailed for his murder - and Aaron James.
The report outlines a number of reasons as to why the disturbances may have taken place, including the influence of drugs gangs, high levels of unemployment, overcrowding and tensions between ethnic groups.
According to the study by the Black Radley consultancy, the Lozells and East Handsworth ward is the most overcrowded in Birmingham with one of the highest levels of unemployment, crime and health problems in the city.
It also has 40 per cent of its housing stock below the decent homes standard.
The area, made attractive to newcomers by its multi-cultural "melting pot" reputation, is also leading to overcrowding as it attracts new immigrants and refugees. Tensions, according to the research, were exacerbated by the rising number of Asians coming into the community whilst the number of black residents declined.
The report says: "While it may be convenient for those who do not live in the area to believe Lozells is multi-ethnic and therefore receptive to a new wave of incomers, the reality of overcrowding and competition for resources means that this is unlikely to be the case."
It also claims drug gangs may have exploited tensions between the Asian and black communities in order to extend their territories.
But it recognises the disturbances did not represent the feelings of the majority of residents and that there was a willingness to work together and that relationships between ethnic groups were "strong".
Councillor Alan Rudge, the city council cabinet member for equalities and human resources, said: "The community is lots of groups that form the whole. The vast majority are level-headed and sensible and do want to work and get on together, want the city to be a success and want to be part of that success. "
Mahmood Hussain, local Labour councillor for Lozells and East Handsworth Ward, said the report had not revealed anything new.
"The communities are living in peace and harmony. The only people with a problem are those who stir things up."