Communities in Birmingham have to be more open with each other if they are to avoid further disturbances on the scale of last year's Lozells riots.
That is message from an Asian market trader in Oldham who has witnessed attempts at building bridges between different communities since racial tensions flared in the city five years ago.
A fragile peace exists in the town where hundreds of Asian youths fought with white youths and police in 2001.
However, things have moved on since the violence in the Glodwick area of the town, which was sparked when far right extremists stirred up racial tensions.
Wahid Khan, aged 35, who has run Khan's Fruit and Vegetable stall in Tommyfield Market since 1992, believes communities need to engage with each other more often.
He said only by understanding different cultures could people dismiss rumours and speculation that was designed to stir up tensions.
The Oldham riots were sparked when white extremists visited the Glodwick area of the town after an elderly war hero was mugged in the district by Asian youths.
Mr Khan said: "A lot of people thought it was racially motivated. But it was a random attack.
"I was unaware of racism in Oldham until I found out one of my neighbours in the market was standing for the BNP.
"I found this out after the old man got beaten up. And then I realised: this man who had been my friend has suddenly changed.
"We had been talking for seven years, we thought he was a pretty down to earth guy, but it was that incident which broke the camel's back."
Just before the riots 300 Stoke City fans charged down the market, punching traders and customers and pulling over stalls.
There was then a series of marches from right wing extremists.
"I told my own family not to come into the market because you could feel the tension," said Mr Khan.
However, things have moved on following a series of initiatives set up by the local council to combat segregation.
"People have been more open with each other," he said.
" That is what has brought people closer together and what needs to happen in Birmingham.
"They realised that the trouble we had was orchestrated by certain groups and carried out by thugs and youths.
"There was a lot of suspicion before the riots and a lot of wrong perceptions. There was a perception that the Asian community was getting too much funding. But since the riots the council has been very open and clear about their decisions on finance.
"I don't believe there was any more funding for Asian communities, but that was the perception.
"If you go to the Asian areas they are very deprived. They were very bad at the time of riots, but the council has been working hard on the housing problems."