Business leaders yesterday attacked a strike by train drivers which left thousands of commuters facing travel chaos on the day after the August bank holiday.
South West Trains cancelled most services across southern England and into London Waterloo, running just 300 trains instead of 1,700.
Aslef members staged a 24-hour walk-out and are planning two further stoppages on September 8 and 11 over safety concerns.
Many heeded SWT advice not to travel, but those who did had a long wait.
The company normally transports 400,000 including 350,000 into and out of Waterloo, one of the busiest stations.
The London Chamber of Commerce said the strike caused "misery" for thousands and cost the London economy millions of pounds.
Chief executive Colin Stanbridge said: "Union leaders are inflicting three days of disruption and misery on commuters."
The business group said the public had little sympathy for "unreasonable demands" from militant unions.
Keith Norman, Aslef's general secretary, said the strike had been solidly supported and warned that the next two stoppages will go ahead unless talks are held as a matter of urgency.
He said he had tried to contact the company several times in recent weeks and accused managers of using passengers as a "punch bag" in the dispute.
The row started earlier this year when there was a disagreement involving Waterloo-based drivers over the use of taxis to and from work.
The company drafted in managers to drive trains when the Waterloo workers went on strike, sparking a huge row with Aslef.
The union claimed it had an agreement with the company that managers would only be used in exceptional circumstances.