Birmingham's communities are becoming more polarised with rising immigration, a new report claims.
The city has witnessed a growth in immigration of Black African, Chinese and other white communities in the last four years, the Barrow Cadbury Trust report says.
But the Mapping of Race and Poverty in Birmingham study also claims that pockets of deprivation are more likely to exist around where these communities live.
The report, which was compiled by the Centre for Migration Policy and Society of the University of Oxford, said Birmingham was not a "heavily deprived" city, when compared with the rest of the country.
However, some of the wards where mainly ethnic communities live rate among the ten per cent most deprived in England. There was little or no deprivation where the majority of white people live, the report says.
The report explores challenges facing service providers meeting the needs of Birmingham's ethnic minority community as it becomes the majority.
Other issues it highlights include difficulties in serving the high number of young people within the Pakistani and Bangladeshi communities and also meeting the needs of black Caribbeans, who are particularly deprived in youth employment and health. The report was highlighted at a major London conference, called Cities in Transition, this week.
More research was unveiled by the Barrow Cadbury Trust which detailed how cities such as Los Angeles and Toronto had met the challenges faced with becoming a 'minority-majority' city.
Sukhvinder Stubbs, chief executive of the Barrow Cadbury Trust, said: "As cities become increasingly diverse, the need to tackle problems of poverty, segregation and racism, which disproportionately affect black and ethnic minorities, becomes even greater.
"It’s vital that public policy makers embrace the diversity of plural cities, not just in terms of service provision, but also to help local communities develop ways of working together – forms of reconciliation and mediation that draw out common needs.
"The Barrow Cadbury Trust works in partnership with grassroots groups.
"The conference represented a hugely exciting opportunity to learn from them, and our international partners, on how best to support communities in plural cities."
As well as exploring how Toronto and LA meet the challenges of having large "visible minorities", the conference also looked at how Marseilles was preparing for its new status as a white minority city.
In all four cities assessed, visible minorities have lower employment and higher unemployment rates than non-visible minorities.
Geoff Mulgan, director of the Young Foundation, said: "The conference was a very important step that brought together an international mix of public policy experts and community groups to talk about how best to adapt to the huge social challenges thrown up by the shift to much more diversity in cities.
"The Barrow Cadbury Trust has been instrumental in kick-starting this debate and we're delighted to have been involved in an event that delivered a new insight into the complexities of making majority-minority populations work together successfully."