Birmingham needs more traffic wardens in areas outside the city centre - despite more parking tickets being issued than in any other city outside London.
An influential city council report has called for even greater coverage in the suburbs to help reduce congestion.
Last night motoring groups said there was a more urgent need for greater controls to be placed on private parking contractors and greater transparency of their operating terms.
The report has been compiled by the council's transportation overview and scrutiny committee and will be presented to the full council on April 5.
It also recommends the council annually publicises how the income raised from parking controls is used and that the firm involved - Control Plus - be made to more closely follow council policy through performance incentives.
Since Control Plus took over the #1.9 million contract from the council in 2001, the number of tickets issued in an average month has increased by six per cent from 13,497 in 2002/3 to 14,312 per month in 2004/5, the report states.
In total, the council made a net profit of #5.18 million from parking enforcement in 2003/4.
The report states: "There are arguments for and against increasing the level of enforcement outside the city centre. Opponents would argue that there are already too many penalty charge notices issued in Birmingham.
"The counterpoint is that requests for enforcement in outer (predominantly residential areas) already outstrip the council's ability to meet these alongside congestion priorities outside the city centre."
Coun Alistair Dow (Lib Dem Selly Oak), the transportation overview and scrutiny committee chairman, said: "It appears to me that many people view congestion as something that 'other people cause'.
"Observing in the course of this review how motorists behaved was interesting and showed much about the problem that we have to combat.
"While some motorists complain about how parking is enforced, they sometimes forget that without it there would be chaos."
He added that the Control Plus contract, which ends next year, did not contain performance targets or quotas for wardens.
A spokesman for the RAC motoring organisation said: "We would not agree that there is a need for more wardens.
"It is far more important, from the point of view of motorists, to see better controls put in place for these private operators and more transparency of what terms they are operating under.
"The situation in Birmingham has been replicated across the country where public trust has been eroded as the amount of fines issued by private wardens has shot up.
'It is, frankly, something that motorists are becoming fed up with."
Before taking office last June, leading Tory councillors called for an inquiry into Control Plus's 'ruthless' pursuit of motorists.
Earlier this month, it was revealed Alum Rock Road was the most fined street in the city, with 5,577 fines issued during 2004 - fifteen tickets a day ? netting #334,620.
Of the 30 most fined streets in the city, 13 were outside the city centre and resulted in nearly #1.5 million in fines.