Birmingham is a hot-spot for the likes of whooping cough and gout as diseases once common in Victorian times appear to be re-emerging.
Almost 300 people were admitted to hospital with gout in the last year, while cases of whooping cough rose by nearly half to 27 cases.
The figures show Birmingham residents are among the most likely in the country to get the highly contagious disease, which affects 1.1 per 100,000 people.
Meanwhile, admissions for malnutrition across the city have also increased rapidly.
Some experts have blamed poverty, along with social care and health cuts for the surge in the diseases, which were thought to be eradicated.
The figures, published by the Health and Social Care Information Centre, show cases of malnutrition rising by half in four years, with 7,366 people admitted to hospital between August 2014 and July this year. This compared with 4,883 cases in the same period from 2010 to 2011.
Chris Mould, chairman of the Trussell Trust, which runs a nationwide network of foodbanks, said it saw thousands of people going hungry and missing meals as they struggled to put food on the table.
He said: “We meet families from across the UK struggling to put enough food on the table and, at the extreme end, you get people who are malnourished.
“We often see parents who are going without food so that they can feed their children and these parents often struggle to afford enough nutritious food for their children, too. We don’t think anyone should have to go hungry in the UK, which is why we’re working to engage the public, other charities and politicians across parties to find solutions to the underlying causes of food poverty.”
Cases of other diseases rife in the Victorian era , including scurvy, scarlet fever and even cholera have also increased since 2010, although cases of TB, measles, typhoid and rickets have fallen.
In Birmingham and the Black Country there were 27 admissions to hospital with a primary diagnosis of whooping cough in the year to July 2015, or 1.1 cases per 100,000 people. This was up 42 per cent from the year to July 2014, when there were 19 admissions.
Whooping cough is a highly contagious bacterial infection of the lungs and airways but, due to the success of an NHS vaccination scheme, it is now uncommon in young children.
Most cases occur in adults whose immunity has faded and in these cases symptoms tend to be less serious.
Babies are affected most severely by whooping cough and are most at risk of developing complications . For this reason, babies under 12 months who contract it will often need treatment in hospital. Whooping cough is a cyclical disease with the number of cases peaking every three to four years.
Admissions with a primary diagnosis of malnutrition increased by 34.2 per cent from 544 in August 2010-July 2011 to 730 in August 2014-July 2015.
The increase in admissions where malnutrition was either a primary or secondary diagnosis is even more pronounced at 50.8 per cent over the five-year period.