The Labour leader is to highlight the battle for control of the Redditch-based engineering giant GKN as an example of the "dominance" of bankers and finance over the rest of the economy.
Investment company Melrose Industires is trying to take over GKN, which employs 58,000 people worldwide and specialises in the aerospace and automotive sectors.
Mr Corbyn will also say Birmingham chocolate-maker Cadbury had been "sacrificed" when it was taken over in 2010.
In a speech to the EEF, the body which represents manufacturing industries, Mr Corbyn will say a Labour government would change the way the economy worked so that finance becomes "the servant of industry, not the masters of us all".
This would involve changing the rules so that the Government had more powers to block hostile takeovers, he said.
Mr Corbyn will say: "The reign of finance doesn’t stop at the gates of the City of London.
"Its extractive logic has spread into all areas of life with short-term performance and narrow shareholder value prioritised over long-run growth and broader economic benefit.
"Take GKN, one of the world’s oldest and most prestigious engineering firms, which employs 6,000 workers across the UK, contributes an estimated £1.3 billion to the economy, pays a healthy £174 million in tax each year and invested £561 million in R&D in the UK alone.
"And yet GKN is currently facing a hostile, allegedly debt-fuelled takeover bid by Melrose, a company with a history of opportunistic asset-stripping."
The Labour leader will say the takeover of Birmingham-based Cadbury in 2010 by US food giant Kraft (now known as Mondelez International) was another example of takeover damaging a good business.
"It’s an all too familiar story, like when Kraft took over Cadburys. A valuable company could be sacrificed so that a few can make a quick buck.
"We rightly praise the growth of companies like GKN and their location in the UK. And yet when we are facing the possible destruction of that company, we are powerless to act.
"That’s why the next Labour government will broaden the scope of the ‘public interest test’, allowing Government to intervene to prevent hostile takeovers which destroy our industrial base."
GKN makes parts for companies such as Porsche, Volvo, Airbus and Jaguar Land Rover.
It has already rejected two Melrose bids and descibes Melrose’s offer as “low price and high risk”.
Trade union Unite has claimed bankers, financiers, lawyers and public relations executives stood to make around £140 million if Melrose succeeds in its bid for the firm.
It said the "eye-watering" sum includes up to £69 million in financing arrangements, up to £50 million for financial advice, £9 million for legal advice and millions on public relations and professional services.