The Chancellor's announcement adding 1p duty to the price of beer was criticised by real ale drinkers.
The Campaign for Real Ale (Camra) said the increase amounted to a double blow, following price rises by several brewers and pub companies last month.
Mike Benner, chief executive of Camra, said: "This is a disappointing Budget for beer drinkers.
"This increase is a blow which will hit pubs, and consumers hard.
"A penny may not sound like much, but today's tax rise follows recent wholesale beer price rises by some brewers.
"Some pubs will now be charging as much as 10 pence a pint more than they were only a month ago.
"At a time when beer consumption is falling and pubgoing is in decline this is a potentially devastating outcome for consumers and hard-working licensees."
Mr Benner added: "A tax rise is a flawed strategy which will cost jobs, increase smuggling and uncontrolled drinking and leave responsible beer drinkers out of pocket."
The decision was also attacked by brewers.
"It is very disappointing that Gordon Brown continues to choose a tax strategy that favours imported Australian chardonnay over home produced British beer," said Mark Hastings, director of communications at the British Beer & Pub Association.
The Wine and Spirit Association, which represents more than 200 companies in 15 countries, had a mixed reaction to the Budget.
Mr Brown announced 4p on a bottle of wine but froze duty on spirits and, unexpectedly, sparkling wine.
Quentin Rappoport, director of the trade body, said: "Once again, the Chancellor is masking the blow dealt to the wine industry behind the seemingly innocuous face of an inflationary rise of 4p on a bottle of wine.
"Increases in line with inflation, however small, have an impact on the growth rate of the wine sector.
"However, we are delighted that the Chancellor has today further reduced the unjust and unjustifiable tax surcharge on sparkling wine.
"We are also pleased with another successive freeze on spirits duty, as promised in last year's Budget Statement.
"It remains to be seen how the proposed strip stamp regime will be implemented and we continue to work behind the scenes with Government to protect the interests of the trade."